Morse code chart is a method to encode all the 26 English letters from A to Z. The English letters are transformed into standardized sequences of dots and dashes. They are the same for uppercase as well as lowercase letters.
Learning Morse code is quite interesting and helps you transmit a secret message in an encoded way so that no one else can read it instantly. Here are all the details you need to know about Morse Code Chart.
History of Morse Code
- Invented by Samuel Morse in the 1830s, Morse codes were used in World War II for radiotelegraphy. This means the codes were used to transmit messages between naval bases and warships.
- Samuel Morse also invented the telegraph system. Morse code was first used for telegraphy in 1844. Morse code was further improved by Alfred Lewis Vale.
- In the beginning, Morse code was not able to transmit many letters having diacritic markings. To resolve the issue, European Nations came up with the International Morse Code in 1851. This is called the Continental Morse Code.
Morse Code Chart
The Morse code chart comprises code symbols with lengths approximately inverse to corresponding character occurrences. It is this arrangement that makes Morse code more efficient than most other encoding systems. . It was developed from transliteration as the Latin alphabet includes 26 letters.
Encoding with Morse code can be more efficient as it does not specify durations for the code elements. The codes are transmitted at the highest rate. The standard speed of transmission as of 2011 is 34 words per minute.
|B||_ . . .||O||_ _ _|
|C||_ . _.||P||. _ _ .|
|D||_ . .||Q||_ _ . _|
|E||.||R||. _ .|
|F||. . _ .||S||. . .|
|G||_ _ .||T||_|
|H||. . . .||U||. . _|
|I||. .||V||. . . _|
|J||. _ _ _||W||. _ _|
|K||_ . _||X||_ . . _|
|L||. _ . .||Y||_ . _ _|
|M||_ _||Z||_ _ . .|
|1||. _||6||_ . . . .|
|2||. . _||7||_ . . .|
|3||. . . _||8||_ . .|
|4||. . . . _||9||_ .|
|5||.||0||− − − − −|
|Comma [,]||_ _ . . _ _||Full stop.||. _ . _. _|
|Question Mark [?]||. . _ _ . .||Semicolon ;||_ . _ . _ .|
|Colon: or division sign||_ _ _ . . .||Slash /||_ . . _.|
|Dash –||_ . . . . _||Apostrophe ‘||. _ _ _ _.|
|Inverted commas “||. _ . . _.||Underline||. . _ _ . _|
|Quotation mark [“]||· − · · − ·||Dollar sign [$]||· · · − · · −|
|Double hyphen =||_ . . . _||Cross +||. _ . _.|
|Multiplication sign X||_ . . _||At Sign [@]||· − − · − ·|
|Double Dash [=]||− · · · −||Underscore [_]||· · − − · −|
How To Learn Morse Code?
One can easily learn Morse code from the chart. It can be signaled in various forms that human senses can perceive like visible light or sound waves. To learn Morse code chart, you will have to listen in a proper scheduled way as regularly as possible.
You can easily follow the Koch method or the Farnsworth method to learn Morse code. Some people also use online apps and learn just like learning a new language. All you have to do is to practice and make yourself an expert. In many cases, Morse code is spoken with dah for dashes. Morse code speed is measured in character per minute (CPM) or words per minute (WPM).
Representation, Timing, and Speeds
You need to keep in mind that the International Morse Code has five elements. These are –
- Longer mark, “dah“, or dash. This is 3-time units long.
- Short mark, “dit“, or dot. This is 1-time unit long.
- The short gap between letters is 3-time units long.
- The medium gap between words is 7-time units long.
- Gap between the dashes and dots for a character is one unit long.
Additional Morse Code Characters –
There are many recommendations for Morse code characters by ITU.
Minute and second signs: For transmitting minute(‘) and second(“) signs, for example, if the time is 1’15”, the apostrophe signal can be transmitted once or twice as applicable. The signal with inverted commas need not be used.
Percentage and per-thousand signs: For indicating per thousand or percentage, one can easily transmit the figures 0/00 or 0/0 respectively. A whole number and fraction number followed by percent or per thousand is sent by adding up the numbers separated by a single hyphen. For example, to transmit 3 1/2%, you need to send 3-1/2-0/0.
Sending whole numbers and fractions: When a number has a fraction, it will be transmitted separated by a single hyphen. For example, to transmit 3 4/5, you need to send 3-4/5.
Length of Morse Code Characters
One must know the correct length of Morse code characters for easy reading. When it is too short or too long, you may find it difficult to read. Another thing is that the rhythm has to be perfect. Here are some of the Morse code character lengths.
- The space between two letters always has to be equal to three dots.
- The space between two words always has to be equal to seven dots.
- The space between elements of the same letter always has to be equal to one dot.
- A dash must be equal to three dots.
Morse code is one of the best ways to encode English letters and send a secret message so that no one can read it instantly. It is still popular for amateur radio applications. Learning Morse code may seem to be difficult but with regular practice, you can master it easily. You can use online apps for regular learning and practising.